Dictionary definition of facts are pieces of information that can be discovered or are statements of truth that can be verifiable from experience or observation. What this implies is that facts are content types that need to be recalled or memorized, something that needs to be stored in the memory.
Facts don’t seem to be very useful by themselves, but in the right context, when combined with other content types, they become useful. Depending on the context, memorizing facts may or may not be necessary. We often criticize our educational system for making us memorize countless pieces of information, like the names of countries and their capitals, which are hardly useful in everyday life. However, this factual knowledge becomes valuable when you’re a tourist in a foreign country. As a general rule, when teaching facts, it is advisable not to enforce learners to recall them unless the context is provided.
Recall the learning theories we looked into that emphasized on the role of reinforcement in shaping behavior – Behaviorism. This theory suggests that learning occurs through the repetition of experiences and the association of stimuli with particular responses.
So as an ID, use strategies which enables memorization and recollection to teach facts. Rote Learning is the most common way to enable memorizing and recalling information through repetition. The strategies involve mnemonics or memory techniques that increases the ability to recall and retain information. These techniques act as memory aids to help move pieces of information from short-term to long-term memory by surpassing the average short-term memory limit (Cognitive Load Theory) of seven pieces of information. Following are a few techniques:
Memory Journey or Method of Loci – Uses visualizations or imaginations say a interactive world map. Used to remember factual information such as routes, locations, and lists.
Chunking – Uses organization to break down pieces of information, learn them individually, and then piece them together. Used to remember factual information such as mobile numbers (ten digits separated into three separate chunks).
Acrostics– Uses a new word or group of words by taking the first letter of each word or line and putting them together. Used to remember lists such as “FANBOYS” for coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
Rhyming: Uses acoustic encoding and auditory stimuli to help you remember information. Used to remember lists and concepts such as the leap years “30 days hath September, April, June, and November”
Music: Uses auditory stimuli by putting information to music to assist with retention. Used to recall longer lists or sequence of steps, such as the “ABC song” (melody of “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star”) to recall all 26 alphabets.
Visual: Using flashcards or infographics or other visual aids to present the content in a concise and easily digestible format. Used to remember complex information that is difficult to remember in written or spoken form using mind maps, flowcharts or concept maps.